The term 'tar' represents semi-liquid mixtures of organic compounds that originated in thermal conversion processes and then condensed while cooling down the gas phase. Tars have a yellowish or brownish to black appearance and a pungent smell. A number of tar constituents is harmful to health or environment. Tar is seen problematic in a number of processes. In gasification, pyrolysis and even combustion processes tar occurs, is unwanted and shall be removed with the lowest possible effort. A scientific aim is to identify parameters for characterizing 'tar' in order to run the conversion process still efficiently, meaning at desirable gas compositions as output and low on tar. This section gives some information and relevant sources of information on common techniques applied to tar sampling and analysis. Furthermore approaches to analyze 'tar' on-line or to monitor a 'tar-content' are presented and described.
Species from the gas phase which are not to be analyzed within the gas matrix or which are possible condensible, or which dissolve in condensing substances are by standard trapped in liquids (solvents) ar brought onto solid adsorbents. Further the liquid solvents can be prepared for subsequent analysis with e.g. gas chromatography and different detector systems. The species adsorbed onto solid phases are either extracted with liquid solvents (solid phase (micro) extraction - SP(M)E) or reevaporated by thermal desorption (TD). Some information about methods applied to tar species analysis in process gases is given below.